Irregular plural nouns
In English, there are hundreds of nouns that don’t follow the standard rules for making a noun plural. There are no easy ways to remember these words, so they generally have to be memorised.
Some of the rarer irregular plurals are often misused, leading to the creation of variant forms, which usually encounter resistance at first but eventually make it into the language. For example, the plural of formula has traditionally been formulae, but formulas is now far more common, and few would call it incorrect.
Examples of some nouns retaining their plural forms from Latin and other languages:
-o becomes –oes
Examples of most nouns ending in –o adding an –s, but some take –es instead—for example:
Changing vowel sounds
Examples of some nouns changing their vowel sound
-f becomes -ves
Examples of some nouns ending in –f are pluralized by dropping the –f and adding –ves:
-is becoming –es
Examples of some nouns ending in –is dropping the –is and adding –es:
-ix becoming –ices
Examples of some nouns ending in –ix dropping the –ix and adding –ices:
A few nouns are unchanged in their plural forms:
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