Notre blog est écrit en anglais pour vous aider à pratiquer et améliorer vos compétences de langue anglaise. Il y a un bouton se traduisant au fond de l’écran, devez vous en avoir besoin.
Ludwig Wittgenstein (one of the greatest philosophers in the 20th century) wrote
‘ Die Grenzen meiner Sprache bedeuten die Grenzen meiner Welt. ‘
‘ The limits of my language define the limits of my world. ‘ ñ
I first heard this quotation explained in my philosophy class at my school. Admittedly some years ago! Although what Wittgenstein meant exactly will probably always be beyond my understanding, I at least began to appreciate the two essential ingredients for good communication between people throughout the world:
- The importance of clarity and precision
- The immense benefit of having a second language
Hence my passion for language.
Please email me at firstname.lastname@example.org, if you wish to share something on the blog. Anything funny or quirky is a winner! I look forward to hearing from you.
Probably the best joke so far in 2018
Q What is it called, when a cat wins a dog show?
Many myths and legends surround the patron saint of Ireland, St. Patrick. So much about St. Patrick is based on legend, that we cannot even be sure when, and where, he is born. We do know that Patrick is born somewhere in Britain, probably near the end of the fourth century.
As a young boy, likely living in Britain with wealthy parents, Patrick is not yet known by the name which has made him famous for thousands of years. Before he becomes Patricius (meaning “Father of the Citizens), which later evolves into Patrick, the boy goes by his birth name – Maewyn Succat.
Patrick is kidnapped at the age of 16 by a group of Irish raiders. During his captivity, Patrick has plenty of time to think – and pray. As he himself tells us, during these years of isolation from his family, he finds God. Patrick spends 6 years as a slave and is forced to work as a shepherd.
Patrick has a dream – one of several which change his life. This time, he senses a voice telling him to leave his captors. After he escapes his life as a slave-shepherd, Patrick tries to return back to his home country of Britain. Back at home, Patrick has a dream of returning to Ireland and responds to that vision by becoming an apostle to the Irish people. Patrick’s approach to life is simple – believe in God and do His will – and he shares this message with the people of Ireland.
As a priest, he wanted to preach the gospel to as many people as possible. Although he never was canonised as a saint by the Catholic Church, Patrick would have taken delight in being adopted as the patron saint of Ireland by the Irish people themselves.
Did St. Patrick rid Ireland of snakes? Did Patrick use shamrocks to teach people about the Trinity? Who cares, it’s a good craic!
6 Nations Rugby
England 15 Ireland 24
Ireland won the tournament. And the Grand Slam!
How to take a telephone call
To introduce yourself on the telephone:
- This is Ken
- Hello, Ken speaking
If you’d like to reply more formally, use your full name:
- This is Jennifer Smith speaking
- Hello, Jennifer Smith speaking.
If you are answering for a business, just state the business name and ask how you can help:
- Good morning, Thomson Company. How may I help you?
Sometimes, you’ll need to find out who is calling. Ask them politely for this information:
- Excuse me, who is this?
- Can I ask who is calling, please?
If you answer the phone, you might need to connect the caller to someone at your business.
Here are some useful phrases:
- I’ll put you through (put through – phrasal verb meaning ‘connect’)
- Can you hold the line? Can you hold on a moment?
When someone is not available
These phrases can be used to express that someone is not available to speak on the telephone.
- I’m afraid … is not available at the moment
- The line is busy… (when the extension requested is being used)
- Mr. Jackson isn’t in… Mr. Jackson is out at the moment…
Taking a message
If someone isn’t available, you might want to take a message to help the caller.
- Could (Can, May) I take a message?
- Could (Can, May) I tell him who is calling?
- Would you like to leave a message?
Happy International Women’s Day!
A special day for a special woman. Mary Wollstonecraft (April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women’s rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children’s book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason. Some say she was the first Champion of women
An Historical and Moral View of the Origin and Progress of the French Revolution ; and the Effect it has produced in Europe (1794) is Mary Wollstonecraft’s one work of history. She wrote it while staying in France, from December 1792 to April 1795, at a time when it was dangerous to express reservations about the revolutionary government. It was also a time when there were very few women writing books of history
After Wollstonecraft’s death, her widower (William Godwin) published a Memoir (1798) of her life, revealing her unorthodox lifestyle, which inadvertently destroyed her reputation for almost a century. However, with the emergence of the feminist movement at the turn of the twentieth century, Wollstonecraft’s advocacy of women’s equality and critiques of conventional femininity became increasingly important. Today Wollstonecraft is regarded as one of the founding feminist philosophers, and feminists often cite both her life and work as important influences. Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecraft’s life, which encompassed several unconventional personal relationships, received more attention than her writing. After two ill-fated affairs, with Henry Fuseli and Gilbert Imlay (by whom she had a daughter, Fanny Imlay), Wollstonecraft married the philosopher William Godwin, one of the forefathers of the anarchist movement. Wollstonecraft died at the age of 38, eleven days after giving birth to her second daughter, leaving behind several unfinished manuscripts. This daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, became an accomplished writer herself, as Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein.
Q What kind of key opens a banana?
A A monkey
Create as many words as you can from the word-wheel. Each word must contain at least 3 letters. For those of you, who like a real challenge, the central hub letter must be used in each word. Let me know how you get on.
Some / Any Rules
Here are the rules for the use of ‘some’ and ‘any’ in positive and negative sentences, as well as in questions. Notice that ‘some’ and ‘any’ are used for both countable and uncountable (non count) nouns. Once you have studied the rules, take the follow up quiz to check your understanding.
Use ‘some’ in positive sentences. We use ‘some’ with both countable and uncountable nouns.
I have some friends.
She wants some ice cream.
Use ‘any’ in negative sentences or questions. We use any for both countable and uncountable nouns.
Do you have any cheese?
Did you eat any grapes after dinner?
He doesn’t have any friends in Chicago.
I don’t wont any trouble.
We use ‘some’ in questions when offering or requesting something that is there.
Would you like some bread? (offer)
Could I have some water? (request)
Words with Some
Words such as ‘somebody’, ‘something’, ‘somewhere’ which include ‘some’ follow the same rules. Use ‘some’ words – somebody, someone, somewhere and something – in positive sentences.
He lives somewhere near here.
He needs something to eat.
Peter wants to speak to someone at the store.
Words with Any
Words with ‘any’ such as: ‘anybody’, ‘anyone’, ‘anywhere’ and ‘anything’ follow the same rule and are used in negative sentences or questions.
Do you know anything about that boy?
Have you spoken to anyone about the problem?
She doesn’t have anywhere to go.
They didn’t say anything to me.
‘Any’ and ‘some’ are used in positive and negative statements as well as in questions. Generally speaking, ‘any’ is used in questions and for negative statements while ‘some’ is used in positive statements.
Is there any milk in the fridge?
There aren’t any people in the park today.
I have some friends in Chicago.
There are exceptions, however, to this rule. Here’s an explanation of how to use ‘any’ and ‘some’ correctly.
Read the conversation below:
Barbara: Is there any milk left?
Katherine: Yes, there is some in the bottle on the table.
Barbara: Would you like some milk?
Katherine: No, thank you. I don’t think I’ll drink any tonight. Could I have some water, please?
Barbara: Sure. There is some in the fridge.
In this example, Barbara asks ‘Is there any milk left?’ using ‘any’ because she doesn’t know if there is milk or not. Katherine responds with ‘some milk’ because there is milk in the house. In other words, ‘some’ indicates that there is milk. The questions ‘would you like some’ and ‘could I have some’ refers to something that exists that is offered or requested.
Barbara: Do you know anybody who comes from China?
Katherine: Yes, I think there is someone who is Chinese in my English class.
Barbara: Great, could you ask him some questions for me?
Katherine: No problem. Is there anything special you want me to ask?
Barbara: No, I don’t have anything in particular in mind. Maybe you could ask him some questions about life in China. Is that OK?
The same rules apply in this conversation, but are used for words made using ‘some’ or ‘any’. The question ‘Do you know anybody’ is used because Barbara doesn’t know if Katherine knows a person from China. Katherine then uses ‘someone’ to refer to a person she knows. The negative form of ‘anything’ is used in the sentence ‘I don’t have anything’ because it is in the negative.
We will finish looking at the use of ‘some’ and ‘any’ on the 3 March
Every Feb. 5, Nutella aficionados worldwide take to social media to celebrate World Nutella Day, composing songs, hosting parties and posting pictures of the sinfully sumptuous hazelnut and chocolate spread on everything from pancakes to pizzas to pastries.
This year’s event was particularly notable, as the “Nutella riots” had surprised the world just 11 days earlier. A French grocery chain slashed Nutella prices by 70%, leading to brawls, injuries, and an “orgy” of shopping madness. The uproar was so extreme that the French government began an investigation to see if consumer laws for discounting merchandise had been broken.
It was all for a spread that’s more palm oil and sugar than hazelnut (13%) and chocolate (7%) – but nonetheless saw astounding global sales of $2.46 billion in 2013. 180 million kilograms of Nutella are manufactured annually, hogging a quarter of the world’s entire hazelnut supply. In fact, Nutella has made its owners – the Ferrero family – so wealthy they recently bought Nestle; they claim to manufacture the same number of Tic Tacs in four years as stars in the Milky Way galaxy.
The meteoric rise of Nutella, and the devotion it inspires, is even more fascinating when one considers that this decadent chocolate-nut butter is actually a direct result of wartime shortages and rationing. Nutella was inspired by a confectioner’s compromise called “gianduja,” invented in Turin, Italy, in the early 1800s when there was a shortage of cocoa due to restrictions imposed by Napoleon.
During World War II, when cocoa was once again in short supply, a pastry maker named Pietro Ferrero improved on the recipe, using the abundant supply of prized, local hazelnut paste. According to Nutella, the blend was made in solid loaves wrapped in tinfoil, to be sliced and smeared on bread – and was about 2/3 hazelnut paste and 20% cocoa. Ferrero’s son Michele tinkered once again with the recipe, turned it into a cream, packaged it in a jar, and named it “Nutella.” He became so wealthy he commuted by helicopter every day from his Monte Carlo villa to Alba in northwest Italy. Today the company is the third-largest confectioner in the world.
It is commonly (wrongly) believed in the UK that the last time the French landed by armed force on British soil was nearly 1000 years ago, when in 1066 Guillaume le Conquérant popped over to say hello. Most people would be surprised to learn about The Battle of Fishguard, which was a military invasion of Great Britain by revolutionary France during the war of the First Coalition The brief campaign, on 22–24 February 1797, is the most recent landing on British soil by a hostile foreign force, and thus is often referred to as the “last invasion of Britain”. The French General Lazare Hoche had devised a three-pronged attack on Britain in support of the Society of United Irishmen. Two forces would land in Britain as a diversionary tactic, while the main body would land in Ireland. Adverse weather and ill-discipline halted two of the forces but the third, aimed at landing in Wales and marching on Bristol, went ahead.
After brief clashes with hastily assembled British forces, led by Lord Cawdor, and the local civilian population, the invading force’s commander, Colonel William Tate, was forced into unconditional surrender on 24 February. In a related naval action, the British captured two of the expedition’s vessels, a frigate and a corvette.
Royal Oak Pub in Fishguard, where Lord Cawdor set up his headquarters
Lettuce in, it’s freezing out here
Can you change the word DOOR on the top rung of the ladder to BELL on the bottom rung? Step down each rung of the ladder, altering one letter of the word on every step, to enter a new word on each rung.
Let me know if you need the answer!
Fill in the gaps in this paragraph with the prepositions – in, on, at or to. After you finish, look at the answers below
- Janet was born _____Windsor _____ December 22nd _____ 3 o’clock _____ the morning.
- Windsor Castle is _____ the state of Berkshire _____ the United Kingdom.
- She goes _____ classes _____ the university.
- She usually arrives _____ the morning _____ 8 o’clock.
- _____ weekends, she likes driving _____ her friend’s house _____ Wales .
- Her friend lives _____ Cardiff
- She usually arrives _____ 9 _____ the evening and leaves _____ Sunday morning.
- _____ Saturday, they often meet friends _____ a restaurant.
- _____ night, they sometimes go _____ a disco.
- _____ the summer, _____ July for example, they often go _____ the countryside.
- Janet was born in Windsor on December 22nd at 3 o’clock in the morning
- Windsor is in Berkshire in the United Kingdom.
- She goes to classes at the university.
- She usually arrives in the morning at 8 o’clock.
- On weekends, she likes driving to her friend’s house in Wales.
- Her friend lives in Cardiff.
- She usually arrives at 9 in the evening and leaves on Sunday morning.
- On Saturday, they often meet friends at a restaurant.
- At night, they sometimes go to a disco.
- In the summer, in July for example, they often go to the countryside.
Happy Valentine’s Day!
Pancake Day, or Shrove Tuesday, is a special day celebrated in many countries around the world. It is celebrated in English-speaking countries like the UK, Ireland, Australia and Canada. In France, the USA and other countries, it is called ‘Mardi Gras’ or ‘Fat Tuesday’. In others like Spain, Italy or Brazil, Shrove Tuesday is at the end of Carnival. On this day many people eat pancakes: thin, flat cakes made in a pan.
Pancake Day is always on a Tuesday in February or March. It is the day before Ash Wednesday, the start of Lent. Lent is a period of 40 days before Easter when people often give up or stop eating things that are bad for them like chocolate or fast food. At the end of Lent is Easter. Easter takes place on a different date each year because it depends on the moon. Easter Sunday is the first Sunday after the first full moon of spring. Traditionally, during Lent, people didn’t eat rich foods like butter and eggs, so to use them up they made pancakes from these ingredients on Shrove Tuesday.
Another tradition on Pancake Day in the UK is pancake racing. People run in a race with a pancake in a pan. As they run, they have to toss the pancake (throw the pancake in the air and catch it in the pan) several times. In some pancake races people dress up in fancy dress costumes. The most famous pancake race takes place in a town called Olney, in the middle of England. People say that Olney has been celebrating pancake races since 1445!
Pancakes are very easy to make. Try our recipe.
- One cup of flour
- One cup of milk
- One large egg
- Some salt
- Some butter or oil
- Lemon juice
- Some sugar
Phrasal and prepositional Verbs
I think that one of the more complicated aspects of the English Language is the common practice of using a preposition to vary the meaning of a verb.
Phrasal Verbs consist of verb + adverb or verb + preposition. The meaning of these combinations is mostly very different from the verb and the adverb or preposition alone.
Let’s inspect the verb look. Together with adverbs or prepositions the phrases have new meanings. Study the following examples:
- lookafter – He often looks after his brother. (to take care of somebody or something)
- lookback – My grandfather likes to look back on his childhood. (to think about something in the past)
- lookdown – They look down on her because she didn’t study at a university. (to think that somebody is not as as good as others)
- lookfor – I’m looking for my watch. (to try to find somebody or something)
- lookforward to – She always looks forward to meeting him. (to be excited about something that is going to happen)
- lookin – Could you look in on Peggy when you are in town? (to make a short visit)
- lookout (for) – Look out for George while you are in the club. (to try to spot somebody or something)
- lookover – Could you look over my report, please? (to review something )
- lookup – You should look up the word in a dictionary. (to look for information – online or offline)
These verbs consist of verb + adverb. Phrasal Verbs can stand alone (intransitive verbs) or they can be used together with an object.
- Watch out. There is a bike coming.
If there is an adverb in the sentence the phrasal verb can be put before or after the object.
- He picked the broken car up. or
- I picked up the broken car.
If you use the pronounit for the phrase the broken car, the pronounhas to go between the verb and the adverb.
- I picked it up.
These verbs consist of verb + preposition. The object has to go after the preposition. The object must not go between the verb and the preposition. Prepositional Verbs cannot be separated.
- correct: the often looks at his photos
- incorrect: he often looks his photos at
Tongue twisters are a great way to practice and improve fluency. Time yourself to see how quickly you can say these 3 popular traditional twisters, while also properly pronouncing each and every word. If you can master them, you will be doing better than me.
Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
Betty Botter bought some butter
But she said the butter’s bitter
If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter
But a bit of better butter will make my batter better
So ‘twas better Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter
The sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick.
Happy Birthday to me! I happen to share my birthday with the Jacques Prévert. So what better way to celebrate today……. than sharing the poem ‘ Barbara ‘. Your thoughts on the English translation?
Q What happened when the wheel was invented
A There was a revolution
Words we always use even though they add no meaning or value to a sentence are called crutch words. For example, in the sentence “Then I was like, OMG, then like, he went there, and like…” it is pretty obvious that “like” is the crutch word. “Actually,” “honestly,” and “basically” are also commonly used as crutch words.
And then there are the lazy words. Ones that we repeatedly litter our conversations with. A good example is the word ‘ nice ‘. Should you be tempted to use it, ask yourself firstly if there is a more appropriate word instead. There often is!
Windsor Castle (in the English county of Berkshire) is still being used by the royal family, which makes it the oldest royal residence in the world.
Can you change the word CAFE on the top rung of the ladder to FOOD on the bottom rung? Step down each rung of the ladder, altering one letter of the word on every step, to enter a new word on each rung.
In the UK, accents change noticeably about every 40 km
A Pangram is a sentence, which contains all letters of the alphabet. The challenge is to keep the sentence to as short as is possible. Probably the most well known example in the English Language is:
‘ The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog ‘
Have a go at creating one yourself.
Every day, the British drink 165 million cups of tea, which is over 20 times more than the Americans.
Can you change the word FIRE at the top of the ladder to BALL at the bottom? Step down each rung of the ladder, altering one letter of the word in order to make a new word.
Sue and I tomorrow are driving to the UK to visit our family. We will travel by car for about 5 hours to Dieppe, where we will take the lorry and car ferry, which is a 4 hour sea crossing to Newhaven. From there we will drive for another 2 hours to Michael’s home which is near Reading.
The ferry from Dieppe to Newhaven was the original channel crossing route for the rail line linking Paris to London. And now the Avenue Verte London – Paris is a cycle route stretching 406 km. The French section, linking Paris to the Channel port of Dieppe, measures 246 km. It follows special traffic-free greenways (voies vertes), plus some tracks shared with motorists.
The British part of the route uses the National Cycle Network, in particular routes 2, 21 and 20. The website of the cycling organisation Sustrans offers a very detailed map of the route, along with an app: http://www.sustrans.org.uk
Another wonderful joint enterprise between the British and French in creating a green link joining our two great capital cities together by a fabulous bicycle route
With an area of 242,500 sq km (93,600 sq mi), the UK is quite a large country, but in fact, nowhere in it is more than just 113 km (70 mi) from the sea.
Q Waiter, will my pizza be long?
A No sir, it will be round
Q When do doctors get really angry?
A When they run out of patience
1 January 2018
I wish you a happy and healthy New Year.
29 December 2017
I hope you have had a happy Christmas.
A few days ago we said we would examine how good your English vocabulary already is, if you are French. If you combine the new words you are learning daily with the huge number of words you already know, you are taking your huge steps in your journey towards fluency.
Cognates are words from two languages that are the same or similar. Because English borrows many words from Latin and French, you as a French speaker simply just need to be made aware of the huge English vocabulary you already know.
The easy trick is to learn the following 10 French word endings, which identify the French/English cognates.
Cognate Rule 1
Words that end in –al are usually the same in French. However, this rule does not apply to words ending in -ical, which follow a different cognate rule.
English French Animal Animal Central Central Final Final Ideal Ideal International International Mental Mental Original Original
Cognate Rule 2
Words that end in –ance are usually the same in French.
English French Distance Distance Arrogance Arrogance Importance Importance Intolerance Intolerance Perseverance Persévérance Substance Substance Ambulance Ambulance Finance Finance
Cognate rule 3. Words that end in -ary change to -aire.
English French Anniversary Anniversaire Dictionary Dictionnaire Imaginary Imaginaire Salary Salaire Vocabulary Vocabulaire
Words ending in -ist change to -iste in French.
English French Tourist Touriste Dentist Dentiste Artist Artiste Cyclist Cycliste Pessimist Pessimiste
Cognate Rule 5
Words that end in -ble are usually the same in French.
English French Adorable Adorable Flexible Flexible Horrible Horrible Impossible Impossible Visible Visible
Cognate Rule 6
Nouns ending in -tion generally have the same ending in French
English French Information Information Conversation Conversation Tradition Tradition Station Station Celebration Célébration
Cognate Rule 7
Words that end in -ct are usually the same in French
English French Correct Correct Contact Contact Respect Respect Direct Direct Impact Impact
Cognate Rule 8 Words that end in -ent are usually the same in French.
English French President President Urgent Urgent Client Client Different Different Monument Monument
Cognate Rule 9
Words ending in -ical change to -ique,
English French Electrical Électrique Critical Critique Identical Identique Practical Pratique Typical Typique
Cognate Rule 10
Words ending in -ence have the same ending in French.
English French Science Science Violence Violence Experience Expérience Intelligence Intelligence Patience Patience
Wow! You really do know a lot more than you realise! Catch you again in a couple of days time. Gordon
24 December 2017 Christmas Eve
À MOST WORDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARE FROM OTHER EUROPEAN LANGUAGES
If you are French: try these maths!
- 12000 = typical total vocabulary of an English person
- 40% = estimated percentage of words commonly used
- 12000 x 40% = 4800 = number of words for fluency
- 29% = amount of English language, that comes from French
- 12000 x 29% = 3480 English words that you already know
Let’s evaluate more clearly how much English you already know (but do not yet realise it) after Xmas.
21 December 2017
My students are clever
I recently asked a student where his homework was. He replied, “It’s still in my pencil.”
France wins ‘ Country of the Year ‘
The Economist magazine has named France as country of the year, just pipping South Korea to the title. And the Economist says that most of the credit goes to Emmanuel Macron.
For the last few years the UK’s economically liberal The Economist magazine has been picking its “Country of the Year”.
Up until 2017, France never troubled these judges. But then along came Emmanuel Macron.
Perhaps its no surprise a pro-free trade, liberal, globalisation supporting magazine chose France in the year a pro-globalisation, economically liberal, progressive 39-year-old (40 on Thursday) became the president of a country after five years of near-stagnation under a Socialist leader.
But here’s why France beat South Korea and Argentina, according to The Economist:
‘ In 2017 France defied all expectations. Emmanuel Macron, a young ex-banker who had no backing from any of the traditional parties, won the presidency.
Then La République En Marche, Mr Macron’s brand-new party full of political novices, crushed the old guard to win most of the seats in the National Assembly.
This was not merely a stunning upset. It also gave hope to those who think that the old left-right divide is less important than the one between open and closed.
Mr Macron campaigned for a France that is open to people, goods and ideas from abroad, and to social change at home.
In six months he and his party have passed a series of sensible reforms, including an anti-corruption bill and a loosening of France’s rigid labour laws.
Critics mock Mr Macron’s grandiosity (calling his presidency “Jupiterian” was a bit much).
They carp that his reforms could have gone further, which is true. Perhaps they forget how, before he turned up, France did not look reformable —offering voters a choice between sclerosis and xenophobia.
The struggle between the open and closed visions of society may well be the most important political contest in the world right now. France confronted the drawbridge-raisers head on and beat them. For that, it is our country of the year. ‘
19 December 2017
You think English is easy?
1) The bandage was wound around the wound.
2) The farm used to produce produce .
3) The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.
4) We must polish the Polish furniture.
17 Dec 2017
Have you heard the one about:
Q Which cheese is made backwards?
Q Which word reads the same upside-down?